The treatment of a reservoir formation with a stimulation fluid containing a reactive acid. In sandstone formations, the acid reacts with the soluble substances in the formation matrix to enlarge the pore spaces. In carbonate formations, the acid dissolves the entire formation matrix. In each case, the matrix acidizing treatment improves the formation permeability to enable enhanced production of reservoir fluids. Matrix acidizing operations are ideally performed at high rate, but at treatment pressures below the fracture pressure of the formation. This enables the acid to penetrate the formation and extend the depth of treatment while avoiding damage to the reservoir formation.
To prepare and pump cement into place in a wellbore. Cementing operations may be undertaken to seal the annulus after a casing string has been run, to seal a lost circulation zone, to set a plug in an existing well from which to push off with directional tools or to plug a well so that it may be abandoned. Before cementing operations commence, engineers determine the volume of cement (commonly with the help of a caliper log) to be placed in the wellbore and the physical properties of both the slurry and the set cement needed, including density and viscosity. A cementing crew uses special mixers and pumps to displace drilling fluids and place cement in the wellbore.
Any of a number of liquid and gaseous fluids and mixtures of fluids and solids (as solid suspensions, mixtures and emulsions of liquids, gases and solids) used in operations to drill boreholes into the earth. Synonymous with “drilling fluid” in general usage, although some prefer to reserve the term “drilling fluid” for more sophisticated and well-defined “muds.” Classifications of drilling fluids has been attempted in many ways, often producing more confusion than insight. One classification scheme, given here, is based only on the mud composition by singling out the component that clearly defines the function and performance of the fluid:
(1) water-base, (2) non-water-base and (3) gaseous (pneumatic). Each category has a variety of subcategories that overlap each other considerably.
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